Statement of the New York City Bar Association on the Imprisonment of Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh and Other Human Rights Defenders in Iran

Please follow and like us:
Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn

Source: New York City Bar

 

The New York City Bar Association is deeply concerned by the Iranian government’s ongoing campaign of persecution targeting human rights lawyers and other rights defenders, which has intensified over the past year. Nasrin Sotoudeh, who is currently being held in the Evin Prison, is a prime example.

Iran’s preeminent human rights lawyer, Ms. Sotoudeh has a reputation for taking on politically sensitive cases that no one else will touch, advocating on behalf of clients and causes including Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi, as well as journalists, activists, dissidents, intellectuals, members of the Baha’i community, victims of domestic violence, and juveniles on death row.[1] At the time of her most recent arrest, Ms. Sotoudeh was representing the “the Girls of Revolution Street” – the young women who are being prosecuted for removing their headscarves in public to protest Iran’s compulsory hijab laws.[2] In addition, she was organizing opposition to a new policy being implemented by the courts, which requires defendants charged with national security offenses to select their counsel from a very short list of state-approved lawyers[3]; and she has been an outspoken critic of the judiciary’s actions in placing its own candidates on the board of the Iranian Bar Association.[4]  

Ms. Sotoudeh was taken into custody at her Tehran home on June 13, 2018, with no advance notice, and taken directly to prison.[5] At the time, authorities told her that she was being imprisoned to serve a five-year sentence for espionage that had been imposed in 2016 – a charge as to which she was given no notice and was tried, convicted, and sentenced in absentia.[6] Additional national security charges have been filed against her since then.[7] All of the charges are based solely on Ms. Sotoudeh’s work as a lawyer representing her clients and her non-violent actions advocating for basic human rights.[8] For example, in one case, the evidence that she constitutes a threat to national security consists of a handful of lapel buttons bearing slogans such as “I am against the forced veil.”[9] In another case, the alleged offense is based on the decision of an international organization to confer on her a prestigious international human rights award, a remarkable charge given that the Iranian authorities prohibited her from receiving the award.[10]      

While in prison, Ms. Sotoudeh has frequently been held incommunicado[11] and denied contact with her family, including phone calls[12] and visits.[13] She has declined bail as a matter of principle, citing the excessive sum, deprivations of due process, and the denial of her right to counsel of her own choosing.[14] Similarly, she has refused to retain counsel[15] or to participate in hearings, protesting her inability to choose her own lawyer and the authorities’ harassment and intimidation of her family, friends and colleagues.[16] Ms. Sotoudeh’s husband, Reza Khandan, was arrested in September 2018[17] and has recently been convicted of national security offenses for his peaceful work as a women’s rights advocate[18]; and national intelligence service agents have repeatedly raided the homes of Ms. Sotoudeh and her relatives and colleagues.[19] Since her June 2018 arrest, she has gone on at least three protracted hunger strikes, in defense of her own rights and in solidarity with other activists behind bars.[20] Authorities have retaliated by filing more charges against her.[21]   

Ms. Sotoudeh is no stranger to Evin Prison. In 2011, she was sentenced to 11 years on national security charges based solely on her work as a lawyer and her peaceful activism for social change.[22] On appeal, her sentence was reduced to six years[23] and she was granted early release in September 2013.[24] For a number of years, she was also banned from the practice of law and from foreign travel.[25]

While she may be the most high-profile of the rights defenders in Iran, Ms. Sotoudeh is by no means the only one.[26] In an attempt to silence all dissent, Iran is rapidly incarcerating human rights lawyers and activists that it has convicted of national security offenses based on nothing more than their actions taken to fulfill their professional obligations as lawyers and their peaceful human rights advocacy.[27] As a practical matter, being a human rights lawyer or a rights activist is a crime in Iran today.

Iran’s actions are violations of both its own domestic laws and key principles of international human rights. For example, although the government is now requiring those who are charged with national security offenses to select counsel from a short, state-vetted list, Article 35 of the Iranian Constitution establishes individuals’ right to choose counsel.[28] Article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“ICCPR”), to which Iran is a party, similarly guarantees to individuals charged with crimes the right to confer with a legal adviser of their choice.[29] More broadly, Article 9 of the ICCPR protects the right to freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention,[30] as does Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[31] The ICCPR also obligates governments to ensure defendants prompt notice of all charges against them (Article 14)[32] and the right to pre-trial release (Article 9),[33] as well as the presumption of innocence and adequate time to prepare a defense (Article 14).[34] Further, Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees freedom of expression to all individuals, including human rights lawyers and rights defenders.[35]

Iran’s actions also contravene international human rights instruments that accord special protections to lawyers and human rights defenders as the guardians of the Rule of Law. Principle 23 of the U.N. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers expressly recognizes the right of lawyers “to take part in public discussion of matters concerning the law, the administration of justice and the promotion and protection of human rights.”[36] Principle 1 provides for the right to choose one’s own counsel, and applies with equal force to both human rights lawyers and their clients.[37] Principle 16 directs governments to ensure that lawyers are able to fulfill their professional obligations “without intimidation, hindrance, harassment or improper interference”[38]; and Principle 18 provides that “[l]awyers shall not be identified with their clients or their clients’ causes as a result of discharging their functions.”[39] The Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms – generally known as the Declaration on Human Rights Defenders – affords many of the same protections to rights defenders.[40]

This year, Iran commemorates the 40th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution.[41] Several weeks ago, in honor of the occasion, Iran pardoned 50,000 people – the largest mass pardon in the history of the country.[42] In that same spirit, in light of International Women’s Day (observed worldwide on March 8),[43] and in recognition of Iran’s responsibilities as a member of the global community of nations, the New York City Bar respectfully calls upon the Islamic Republic of Iran to fulfill its international human rights obligations by releasing Nasrin Sotoudeh and her husband, Reza Khandan, from prison, immediately and unconditionally. The New York City Bar also urges the Iranian authorities to dismiss all charges that are pending against the two, which are based on Ms. Sotoudeh’s representation of her clients or on the couple’s peaceful human rights work, and to expunge prior convictions from their records. The New York City Bar further calls upon the Iranian authorities to grant comparable relief to all other similarly-situated human rights lawyers and other rights defenders and, looking to the future, to take all necessary measures to ensure that lawyers are able to meet their professional obligations free of harassment and interference, to afford human rights defenders comparable protections in accordance with international standards, and to guarantee to all Iranians their basic human rights.

The people of Iran deserve no less.  

 

[1] Seee.g.Nasrin Sotoudeh and the Struggle for Human Rights in Iran (The Weekly Standard, Oct. 18, 2018), https://www.weeklystandard.com/irwin-cotler/nasrin-sotoudeh-and-the-struggle-for-human-rights-in-iranThe Cases That Made Iran Target Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, June 14, 2018), https://www.rferl.org/a/the-cases-that-made-iran-target-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh/29290978.html.

[2] See The Cases That Made Iran Target Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, June 14, 2018), https://www.rferl.org/a/the-cases-that-made-iran-target-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh/29290978.htmlIran detains husband of jailed hunger-striking rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (The New Arab, Sept. 4, 2018), https://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/news/2018/9/4/iran-detains-husband-of-jailed-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudehIran’s Orwellian Arrest of Its Leading Female Human-Rights Lawyer (The New Yorker, June 24, 2018), https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/irans-orwellian-arrest-of-a-leading-human-rights-lawyerIran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-chargesIran must protect women’s rights advocates – UN experts (Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, Nov. 29, 2018), https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23947&LangID=Esee also “Girls of Revolution St” Protest Ignites Debate on Iran’s Compulsory Hijab (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 31, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/01/girls-of-revolution-st-protest-ignites-debate-on-irans-compulsory-hijab/.

The young women who are being prosecuted were peacefully protesting the compulsory hijab law by removing their head scarves in public and waving them on sticks, like flags of liberation, while standing on utility boxes. See Iran’s Orwellian Arrest of Its Leading Female Human-Rights Lawyer(The New Yorker, June 24, 2018) (reporting that the charges filed against the young women carry sentences of up to a decade in prison), https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/irans-orwellian-arrest-of-a-leading-human-rights-lawyer; “Girls of Revolution St” Protest Ignites Debate on Iran’s Compulsory Hijab (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 31, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/01/girls-of-revolution-st-protest-ignites-debate-on-irans-compulsory-hijab/The Cases That Made Iran Target Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, June 14, 2018), https://www.rferl.org/a/the-cases-that-made-iran-target-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh/29290978.htmlEU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranIran’s most prominent human rights lawyer is in jail. Again.(Washington Post, June 13, 2018), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/06/13/irans-most-prominent-human-right-lawyer-is-in-jail-again/?utm_term=.0d2fe58a6c3d.

[3] See Iran Must Stop Imprisoning Lawyers for Defending Their Clients (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Oct. 30, 2018) (referring to the Note to Article 48 of Iran’s Code of Criminal Procedure, which provides that, “[i]n cases of crimes against internal or external security. . . during the investigation phase, the parties . . . are to select their attorneys from a list approved by the head of the judiciary,” and noting that, although there are 20,000 licensed lawyers in Tehran Province, the list of state-approved lawyers consists of a mere 20 names), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/10/iran-must-stop-imprisoning-lawyers-for-defending-their-clients/A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer(RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.html; Joint letter on the case of arrest of the lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh in Iran (The Law Society of England & Wales, the Bar Council, the Bar Human Rights Committee of England & Wales, Lawyers for Lawyers, & Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada, Aug. 23, 2018), https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/joint-letter-on-arrest-nasrin-sotoudeh/IranFree prominent human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (Gulf Centre for Human Rights, Aug. 15, 2018),  https://www.gc4hr.org/news/view/1924.

[4] See IBAHRI calls for the immediate release of prominent Iranian human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (International Bar Association Human Rights Institute, July 17, 2018), https://www.ibanet.org/Article/NewDetail.aspx?ArticleUid=b8792a2a-ef48-40c1-961f-a2dd71ff5bf6; Open letter to His Excellency Ayatollah Ali Hosseini Khamenei, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from the International Bar Association’s Human Rights Institute (July 10, 2018).

In addition, Ms. Sotoudeh was one of the 15 prominent Iranians who issued a statement in February 2018 calling for a referendum to determine whether the Iranian people prefer the country’s current theocratic government or a secular parliamentary democracy.  See 15 Prominent Iranians Call For a Referendum on the Islamic Republic (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Feb. 14, 2018) (noting that the call for a referendum “carries a strong risk that the signatories who live inside the country could face serious consequences, including long prison terms), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/02/15-prominent-iranians-call-for-a-referendum-on-the-islamic-republic/The Cases That Made Iran Target Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, June 14, 2018), https://www.rferl.org/a/the-cases-that-made-iran-target-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh/29290978.htmlsee also Iranian Lawyer and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Shirin Ebadi: “The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran Is the Most Important Obstacle to Women’s Rights” (Center for Human Rights in Iran, March 7, 2019), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/03/iranian-lawyer-and-nobel-peace-prize-laureate-shirin-ebadi-the-constitution-of-the-islamic-republic-of-iran-is-the-most-important-obstacle-to-womens-rights/.   

[5] See Iranian human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh arrested(The Guardian/Associated Press, June 13, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/13/nasrin-sotoudeh-arrested-iran-human-rights-lawyer-islamic-headscarf; Joint letter on the case of arrest of the lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh in Iran (The Law Society of England & Wales, the Bar Council, the Bar Human Rights Committee of England & Wales, Lawyers for Lawyers, & Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada, Aug. 23, 2018), https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/joint-letter-on-arrest-nasrin-sotoudeh/Iran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges(Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-chargesIran’s Orwellian Arrest of Its Leading Female Human-Rights Lawyer (The New Yorker, June 24, 2018), https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/irans-orwellian-arrest-of-a-leading-human-rights-lawyer.

[6] See Nasrin Sotoudeh’s Lawyer: “They Came After Her From Three Directions” (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 16, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/nasrin-sotoudehs-lawyer-they-came-after-her-from-three-directions/Iran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-chargesFive Years Imprisonment for Nasrin Sotoudeh, Prominent Iranian Human Rights Lawyer(Iran Human Rights, Aug. 18, 2019), https://iranhr.net/en/articles/3430/Iran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-chargesIran must protect women’s rights advocates – UN experts (Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, Nov. 29, 2018), https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23947&LangID=ELawyer Says Iranian Activist Khandan Released, Support Hunger Strikes Ended (RadioFarda, Dec. 24, 2018)

https://en.radiofarda.com/a/lawyer-says-iranian-activist-khandan-released-support-hunger-strikes-ended/29672360.htmlA Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer (RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.htmlEU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranNasrin Sotoudeh’s Lawyers Sue Judge Moghiseh For Unlawful Sentencing (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Oct. 4, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/10/nasrin-sotoudehs-lawyers-sue-judge-moghiseh-for-unlawful-sentencing/

[7] Seee.g.Detained Human Rights Lawyer Writes Defiant Letter to Tehran Prosecutor (Center for Human Rights in Iran, July 18, 2018) (stating tha Sotoudeh is “detained in Tehran’s Evin Prison . . . based on a complaint filed by a judicial official in Kashan, where her client, [Shparak] Shajarizadeh, was arrested for . . . allegedly removing her hijab in public’), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/07/detained-human-rights-lawyer-sotoudeh-writes-defiant-letter-to-tehran-prosecutor/EU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018) (stating that Sotoudeh “is facing a torrent of charges, including espionage”), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranNasrin Sotoudeh’s Lawyer: “They Came After Her From Three Directions” (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 16, 2018) (stating that “Sotoudeh was summoned by Branch 7 of the court in Evin and told that she was facing another case for [the charges of] ’insulting the supreme leader’ and ‘propaganda against the state’ based on a complaint by  a prosecutor in Kashan, in connection with the arrest of Shaparak Shalarizadeh,” and that, “[a] few days later she was summoned to Branch 2 . . . and informed of charges for forming Legam,” an anti-death penalty organization), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/nasrin-sotoudehs-lawyer-they-came-after-her-from-three-directions/Iran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018) (stating that “Branch 7 of the Tehran prosecutor’s office summoned Sotoudeh . . . to inform her that the prosecutor in Kashan had filed a complaint against her for defending Shaparak Shajarizaden,” one of the young women protesting Iran’s compulsory hijab laws, and that, soon after, “Branch 2 of the Tehran’s prosecutor’s office also charged her [with] membership in [an] anti-death penalty group and issued a temporary arrest warrant),                  https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-chargesFive Years Imprisonment for Nasrin Sotoudeh, Prominent Iranian Human Rights Lawyer(Iran Human Rights, Aug. 18, 2019) (stating that Sotoudeh “was summoned by Branch 7 of the court in Evin because she was facing another case based on a complaint by a prosecutor in Kashan,” presumably involving charges of “action against national security”), https://iranhr.net/en/articles/3430/; Joint letter on the case of arrest of the lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh in Iran (The Law Society of England & Wales, the Bar Council, the Bar Human Rights Committee of England & Wales, Lawyers for Lawyers, & Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada, Aug. 23, 2018) (stating that Sotoudeh was advised that “she is facing new charges of ‘spreading propaganda against the system’ and ‘gathering and colluding to commit crimes against national security’”), https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/joint-letter-on-arrest-nasrin-sotoudeh/Detained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike(Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018) (stating that Sotoudeh is appealing the five-year prison sentence imposed on her in absentia, and that, after Sotoudeh refused to appear at am August 2018 hearing, “the assistant prosecutor in the case, . . . and two other judicial authorities . . . informed her of the new charges” and that the three new charges are “‘urging a referendum,’ ‘assisting the formation of home churches’ and ‘organizing protest rallies’ – in addition to the five others she was already facing: ‘insulting the supreme leader,’ ‘assembly and collusion against national security,’ ‘forming groups against national security’ and ‘propaganda against the state’ and ‘espionage in hiding’”), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer (RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018) (stating that “new charges” were being filed against Sotoudeh, including “attempts to hold protest sit-ins and assemblies, participation in anti-death penalty campaigns, LEGAM (the Persian acronym for a step-by-step abolishment of the death penalty), encouraging people to demand a referendum, and helping to launch home churches”), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.htmlProminent Attorney Nasrin Sotoudeh Facing Additional Charge For Defending Human Rights (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 30, 2018) (stating that Sotoudeh “ha[d] been slapped with an additional charge for allegedly receiving a cash prize from the European Parliament six years [earlier]”), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/prominent-attorney-nasrin-sotoudeh-facing-additional-charge-for-defending-human-rights/A Daily Overview of Human Rights Violations in Iran for December 19, 2018 (Human Rights Activists News Agency) (stating that Sotoudeh “was sentenced to five year imprisonment earlier [in 2018]” and “will face prosecution on . . . new charges on December 23,” 2018), https://www.en-hrana.org/a-daily-overview-of-human-rights-violations-in-iran-for-december-19-2018w;

Evin Prison Repeatedly Blocking Nasrin Sotoudeh From Seeing Her Children (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 18, 2019) (stating that “Sotoudeh is facing a five-year prison sentence, which has been appealed, as well as multiple other national security-related charges for her outspoken advocacy of human and women’s rights as well as willingness to take on politically sensitive cases”), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/evin-prison-repeatedly-blocking-nasrin-sotoudeh-from-seeing-her-children/.

News reports in recent days indicate that Ms. Sotoudeh has been tried on new national security charges, in absentia, on December 30, 2018, and now faces up to 34 years in prison and 148 lashes. See Prominent Women’s Rights Activist Faces 34 Years In Prison (RadioFarda, March 6, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/prominent-women-s-rights-activist-faces-34-years-in-prison/29806520.html; Open Letter to Head of the Judiciary of Iran, Ebrahim Raisi, from Amnesty International (March 4, 2019),  https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/MDE1399522019ENGLISH.pdfHuman Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Faces 34 Years In Prison(National Council of Resistance of Iran Women’s Committee, March 6, 2019), https://women.ncr-iran.org/2019/03/06/human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh/She Defended Iranian Women Who Removed Their Head-Coverings. Now She Is a Convict. (New York Times, March 6, 2019), https://nyti.ms/2TyV2OpNasrin Sotoudeh, Attorney Who Defended Hijab Protesters, Convicted of “National Security” Crimes (Center for Human Rights in Iran, March 5, 2019), https://iranhumanrights.org/2019/03/nasrin-sotoudeh-attorney-who-defended-hijab-protesters-convicted-of-national-security-crimes/Iran lawyer convicted after defending women protesters (Associated Press, March 6, 2019), https://www.apnews.com/ba2f98b97885463dae30bbfe9987853cConviction of Writer and Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh a Grave Miscarriage of Justice (PEN America, March 6, 2019), https://pen.org/press-release/nasrin-sotoudeh-conviction-injustice/Iran: Nasrin Sotoudeh Should Be Released Immediately and Unconditionally (Freedom House, March 7, 2019), https://freedomhouse.org/article/nasrin-sotoudeh-should-be-released-immediately-and-unconditionally.

[8] See Iran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges (Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-chargesProminent Attorney Nasrin Sotoudeh Facing Additional Charge For Defending Human Rights (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 30, 2018) (same), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/prominent-attorney-nasrin-sotoudeh-facing-additional-charge-for-defending-human-rights/Detained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/Iran must protect women’s rights advocates – UN experts (Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, Nov. 29, 2018), https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23947&LangID=E; Open letter to His Excellency Ayatollah Ali Hosseini Khamenei, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from the International Bar Association’s Human Rights Institute (July 10, 2018), https://www.ibanet.org/Article/NewDetail.aspx?ArticleUid=b8792a2a-ef48-40c1-961f-a2dd71ff5bf6; Joint letter on the case of arrest of the lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh in Iran (The Law Society of England & Wales, the Bar Council, the Bar Human Rights Committee of England & Wales, Lawyers for Lawyers, & Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada, Aug. 23, 2018), https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/joint-letter-on-arrest-nasrin-sotoudeh/.

[9] See Iran’s Nasrin Sotoudeh — from human rights lawyer to hunger striker (Deutsche Welle, Aug. 24, 2018), https://www.dw.com/en/irans-nasrin-sotoudeh-from-human-rights-lawyer-to-hunger-striker/a-45258892Nasrin Sotoudeh and the Struggle for Human Rights in Iran (The Weekly Standard, Oct. 18, 2018), https://www.weeklystandard.com/irwin-cotler/nasrin-sotoudeh-and-the-struggle-for-human-rights-in-iransee also Prominent Imprisoned Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Hunger Strikes For Fellow Prisoner Farhad Meysami (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 29, 2018) (noting use of buttons bearing slogans as evidence against other activists), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/prominent-imprisoned-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-hunger-strikes-for-fellow-prisoner-farhad-meysami/Iran Sentences Men Who Supported Women’s Protests Against Compulsory Hijab to Six Years Prison (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 22, 2019) (same), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/iran-sentences-men-who-supported-womens-protests-against-compulsory-hijab-to-six-years-prison/Detained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/.

[10] See Prominent Attorney Nasrin Sotoudeh Facing Additional Charge For Defending Human Rights (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 30, 2018) (same), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/prominent-attorney-nasrin-sotoudeh-facing-additional-charge-for-defending-human-rights/.

Ms. Sotoudeh has been honored with some of the world’s most prestigious international human rights awards, including the European Parliament’s highest award, the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought and the Ludovic-Trarieux International Human Rights Prize, as well as the Kurt Tucholsky PEN Award, among others. See European Union Gives Rights Award to Convicted Iranians (New York Times, Oct. 26, 2012), https://nyti.ms/2Us64lYLudovic-Trarieux International Human Rights Prize 2018http://www.ludovictrarieux.org/uk-page3.callplt2018.htmNasrin Sotoudeh Wins the 2018 Kurt Tucholsky PEN Award (Iran International, Oct. 30, 2018), https://iranintl.com/en/world/nasrin-sotoudeh-wins-2018-kurt-tucholsky-pen-award.

Further, President Emmanuel Macron of France has invited Ms. Sotoudeh to serve as a member of the high-profile Consultative Council for Gender Equality, as part of the G7 Gender Equality Forum. See France’s Macron Invites Jailed Iranian Human Rights Lawyer To G7 Council (RadioFards, March 8, 2019), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/france-s-macron-invites-jailed-iranian-human-rights-lawyer-to-g7-council-/29811115.html.

[11] See Jailed Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Held Incommunicado (Iran Human Rights Monitor, Jan. 17, 2019), https://iran-hrm.com/index.php/2019/01/17/jailed-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-held-incommunicado/.

[12] See Evin Prison Repeatedly Blocking Nasrin Sotoudeh From Seeing Her Children (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 18, 2019), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/evin-prison-repeatedly-blocking-nasrin-sotoudeh-from-seeing-her-children/see also Nasrin Sotoudeh and Baha’i Political Prisoner Refuse Phone Calls in Solidarity With Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 11, 2019), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/nasrin-sotoudeh-and-bahai-political-prisoner-refuse-phone-calls-in-solidarity-with-nazanin-zaghari-ratcliffe/Jailed Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Held Incommunicado (Iran Human Rights Monitor, Jan. 17, 2019), https://iran-hrm.com/index.php/2019/01/17/jailed-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-held-incommunicado/Nasrin Sotoudeh Sacrifices Family Visits To Protest Prosecutor’s Demand She Wear Full Hijab (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Sept. 17, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/09/nasrin-sotoudeh-sacrifices-family-visits-to-protest-prosecutors-demand-she-wear-full-hijab/.

[13] See Evin Prison Repeatedly Blocking Nasrin Sotoudeh From Seeing Her Children (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 18, 2019), https://iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/evin-prison-repeatedly-blocking-nasrin-sotoudeh-from-seeing-her-children/Iran Sentences Men Who Supported Women’s Protests Against Compulsory Hijab to Six Years Prison (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 22, 2019), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/iran-sentences-men-who-supported-womens-protests-against-compulsory-hijab-to-six-years-prison/The Internationalization of Advocacy For Nasrin Sotoudeh Intensifies (Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights, Dec. 31, 2018), https://www.raoulwallenbergcentre.org/newsfeed/2018/12/31/nasrinsee also Nasrin Sotoudeh Sacrifices Family Visits To Protest Prosecutor’s Demand She Wear Full Hijab (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Sept. 17, 2018) (referring to lawsuit against Iranian authorities alleging that they violated articles 570 and 579 of Iran’s Islamic Penal Code by stripping Sotoudeh of her right to see her two children), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/search/Sotoudeh/page/3/?s=SotoudehBanning Imprisoned Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh From Seeing Her Children is Cruel and Unlawful (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 15, 2018) (same), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/banning-imprisoned-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-from-seeing-her-children-is-cruel-and-unlawful/Prominent Attorney Nasrin Sotoudeh Facing Additional Charge For Defending Human Rights (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 30, 2018) (same),

https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/prominent-attorney-nasrin-sotoudeh-facing-additional-charge-for-defending-human-rights/.

[14] See Joint letter on the case of arrest of the lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh in Iran (The Law Society of England & Wales, the Bar Council, the Bar Human Rights Committee of England & Wales, Lawyers for Lawyers, & Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada, Aug. 23, 2018), https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/joint-letter-on-arrest-nasrin-sotoudeh/Five Years Imprisonment for Nasrin SotoudehProminent Iranian Human Rights Lawyer (Iran Human Rights, Aug. 18, 2019), https://iranhr.net/en/articles/3430/Nasrin Sotoudeh’s Lawyer: “They Came After Her From Three Directions” (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 16, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/nasrin-sotoudehs-lawyer-they-came-after-her-from-three-directions/Iran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-charges.

[15] See Iranian Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Charged With National Security Crimes For Representing Hijab Protesters(Center for Human Rights in Iran, June 18, 2018), https://iranhumanrights.org/2018/06/iranian-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-charged-with-national-security-crimes-for-representing-hijab-protesters/A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer (RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.html.

[16] See A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer (RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.htmlDetained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/see also IranActivists’ Families Facing Harassment (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 9, 2018) (discussing family harassment generally), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/09/iran-activists-families-facing-harassment.

[17] See Iran detains husband of jailed hunger-striking rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (The New Arab, Sept. 4, 2018), https://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/news/2018/9/4/iran-detains-husband-of-jailed-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudehImprisoned Activist Reza Khandan Defies Politically Motivated Charges, Demands Public Trial (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Dec. 6, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/12/imprisoned-activist-reza-khandan-defies-politically-motivated-charges-demands-public-trial/Iran must protect women’s rights advocates – UN experts (Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, Nov. 29, 2018) (listing charges filed against Khandan), https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23947&LangID=Esee also IranActivists’ Families Facing Harassment (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 9, 2018) (discussing family harassment generally), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/09/iran-activists-families-facing-harassment.

After nearly four months in prison, Mr. Khandan was released on bail. However, his freedom was short-lived. See Lawyer Says Iranian Activist Khandan Released, Support Hunger Strikes Ended (RadioFarda, Dec. 24, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/lawyer-says-iranian-activist-khandan-released-support-hunger-strikes-ended/29672360.htmlIran Sentences Men Who Supported Women’s Protests Against Compulsory Hijab to Six Years Prison(Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 22, 2019), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/iran-sentences-men-who-supported-womens-protests-against-compulsory-hijab-to-six-years-prison/

[18] See Iran Sentences Men Who Supported Women’s Protests Against Compulsory Hijab to Six Years Prison (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Jan. 22, 2019), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2019/01/iran-sentences-men-who-supported-womens-protests-against-compulsory-hijab-to-six-years-prison/.

[19] See Iran’s Nasrin Sotoudeh — from human rights lawyer to hunger striker (Deutsche Welle, Aug. 24, 2018), https://www.dw.com/en/irans-nasrin-sotoudeh-from-human-rights-lawyer-to-hunger-striker/a-45258892A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer(RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.htmlDetained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike(Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/see also IranActivists’ Families Facing Harassment (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 9, 2018) (discussing family harassment generally), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/09/iran-activists-families-facing-harassment.

[20] See A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer (RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.htmlIran detains husband of jailed hunger-striking rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (The New Arab, Sept. 4, 2018), https://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/news/2018/9/4/iran-detains-husband-of-jailed-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudehDetained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/Prominent Imprisoned Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Hunger Strikes For Fellow Prisoner Farhad Meysami (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 29, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/prominent-imprisoned-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-hunger-strikes-for-fellow-prisoner-farhad-meysami/Imprisoned Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Starts New Course Of Hunger Strike For Fellow Prisoner (Iran Human Rights Monitor, Nov. 30, 3018), https://iran-hrm.com/index.php/2018/11/30/imprisoned-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-starts-new-course-of-hunger-strike-for-fellow-prisoner/Prominent Imprisoned Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Hunger Strikes For Fellow Prisoner Farhad Meysami(Center for Human Rights in Iran, Nov. 29, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/11/prominent-imprisoned-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-hunger-strikes-for-fellow-prisoner-farhad-meysami/Lawyer Says Iranian Activist Khandan Released, Support Hunger Strikes Ended (RadioFarda, Dec. 24, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/lawyer-says-iranian-activist-khandan-released-support-hunger-strikes-ended/29672360.htmlJailed Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Held Incommunicado (Iran Human Rights Monitor, Jan. 17, 2019), https://iran-hrm.com/index.php/2019/01/17/jailed-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-held-incommunicado/.

[21] See A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer (RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.html.

[22] See Detained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/Five Years Imprisonment for Nasrin Sotoudeh, Prominent Iranian Human Rights Lawyer(Iran Human Rights, Aug. 18, 2019), https://iranhr.net/en/articles/3430/EU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iran; Open letter to His Excellency Ayatollah Ali Hosseini Khamenei, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from the International Bar Association’s Human Rights Institute (July 10, 2018), https://www.ibanet.org/Article/NewDetail.aspx?ArticleUid=b8792a2a-ef48-40c1-961f-a2dd71ff5bf6; Joint letter on the case of arrest of the lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh in Iran (The Law Society of England & Wales, the Bar Council, the Bar Human Rights Committee of England & Wales, Lawyers for Lawyers, & Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada, Aug. 23, 2018), https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/joint-letter-on-arrest-nasrin-sotoudeh/.

[23] See EU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranNasrin Sotoudeh’s Detention Order Extended Under Two National Security Charges (Center for Human Rights in Iran, July 31, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/07/nasrin-sotoudehs-detention-order-extended-under-two-national-security-charges/; Five Years Imprisonment for Nasrin Sotoudeh, Prominent Iranian Human Rights Lawyer (Iran Human Rights, Aug. 18, 2019), https://iranhr.net/en/articles/3430/Detained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/.

[24] See EU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranDetained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/Nasrin Sotoudeh’s Detention Order Extended Under Two National Security Charges (Center for Human Rights in Iran, July 31, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/07/nasrin-sotoudehs-detention-order-extended-under-two-national-security-charges/.

[25] See Five Years Imprisonment for Nasrin Sotoudeh, Prominent Iranian Human Rights Lawyer (Iran Human Rights, Aug. 18, 2019), https://iranhr.net/en/articles/3430/EU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranNasrin Sotoudeh’s Detention Order Extended Under Two National Security Charges (Center for Human Rights in Iran, July 31, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/07/nasrin-sotoudehs-detention-order-extended-under-two-national-security-charges/; Joint letter on the case of arrest of the lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh in Iran (The Law Society of England & Wales, the Bar Council, the Bar Human Rights Committee of England & Wales, Lawyers for Lawyers, & Lawyers’ Rights Watch Canada, Aug. 23, 2018), https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/joint-letter-on-arrest-nasrin-sotoudeh/.

[26] Iran has a well-documented history of harassing and jailing human rights defenders and lawyers who have taken on politically-sensitive cases.  See Report, Caught in a Web of Repression: Iran’s Human Rights Defenders Under Attack(Amnesty International, 2017), https://www.justice.gov/eoir/page/file/986541/downloadDetained Human Rights Lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh Refuses to Appear in CourtBegins Hunger Strike (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 27, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/detained-human-rights-lawyer-nasrin-sotoudeh-refuses-to-appear-in-court-begins-hunger-strike/; Open letter to His Excellency Ayatollah Ali Hosseini Khamenei, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from the International Bar Association’s Human Rights Institute (July 10, 2018), https://www.ibanet.org/Article/NewDetail.aspx?ArticleUid=b8792a2a-ef48-40c1-961f-a2dd71ff5bf6Iran: Rights Defender Faces New Charges (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-charges; EU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranJudiciary’s Intensifying Crackdown on Defense Attorneys in Iran Must End (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/judiciarys-intensifying-crackdown-on-defense-attorneys-in-iran-must-end/.

In 2018, Iran’s crackdown on human rights attorneys and human rights defenders intensified. As a practical matter, being a human rights lawyer or a rights activist is a crime in Iran today.  See Iranian protesters defiant in the face of ‘worst’ crackdown in a decade (CNN, Feb. 11, 2019), https://www.cnn.com/2019/02/11/middleeast/iran-crackdown-protesters-intl/index.html;

Fresh surge in arrests of human rights activists in Iran, say advocates (The Independent, Sept. 7, 2018), https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/iran-arrests-nasrin-sotuoudeh-reza-khandan-crackdown-protest-amnesty-international-a8528211.html; EU concerned over detention of human rights lawyer in Iran (The Guardian, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/15/eu-concerned-over-detention-of-rights-lawyer-in-iranIranRights Defender Faces New Charges (Human Rights Watch, Aug. 17, 2018), https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/08/17/iran-rights-defender-faces-new-chargesJudiciary’s Intensifying Crackdown on Defense Attorneys in Iran Must End (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/judiciarys-intensifying-crackdown-on-defense-attorneys-in-iran-must-end/.

[27] See Iran arrested 7,000 dissidents in ‘year of shame’, says AmnestyJournalists, lawyers, minority rights activists and anti-hijab protesters among those heldhttps://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jan/24/iran-arrested-more-than-7000-dissidents-last-year-says-amnestyHRWIran’s ‘Most Reputable Rights Defenders Are Now In Jail’ (RadioFarda, Sept. 6, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/hrw-iran-s-most-reputable-rights-defenders-are-now-in-jail-/29474616.html; Report, Caught in a Web of Repression: Iran’s Human Rights Defenders Under Attack (Amnesty International, 2017), https://www.justice.gov/eoir/page/file/986541/downloadJudiciary’s Intensifying Crackdown on Defense Attorneys in Iran Must End (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/judiciarys-intensifying-crackdown-on-defense-attorneys-in-iran-must-end/. 

[28] See Judiciary’s Intensifying Crackdown on Defense Attorneys in Iran Must End (Center for Human Rights in Iran, Aug. 15, 2018), https://www.iranhumanrights.org/2018/08/judiciarys-intensifying-crackdown-on-defense-attorneys-in-iran-must-end/A Closer Look At The Charges Against A Prominent Iranian Lawyer (RadioFarda, Aug. 28, 2018), https://en.radiofarda.com/a/a-closer-look-at-the-charges-against-a-prominent-iranian-lawyer/29458172.html

[29] See generally International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“ICCPR”), https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx; Status of Ratification – Interactive Dashboard, http://indicators.ohchr.org/. In relevant part, Article 14.3(d) of the ICCPR provides that any individual charged with a crime has the right to “legal assistance of his own choosing.” In relevant part, Article 14.3(d) of the ICCPR provides that any individual charged with a crime has the right to “legal assistance of his own choosing.”

[30] See ICCPR, Art. 9.1 (stating that “[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention”). 

[31] See generally Universal Declaration of Human Rights (“UDHR”), http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/. Like Article 9.1 of the ICCPR, Article 9 of the UDHR states that “[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.”  

[32] See ICCPR, Art. 14.3(a) (providing that every individual accused of a crime has the right “[t]o be informed promptly . . . of the nature and cause of the charge against him”). 

[33] See ICCPR, Art. 9.3 (stating that “[i]t shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody,” although “release may be subject to guarantees to appear” for future proceedings).

[34] See ICCPR, Arts. 14.2, 14.3(b) (stating, respectively, that “[e]veryone charged with a criminal offence shall have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law” and is entitled “[t]o have adequate time . . . for the preparation of his defence”). 

[35] See UDHR, Art. 19 (stating the “[e]veryone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression,” including the “freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers”).

[36] See generally U.N. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/roleoflawyers.aspx. Principle 23 of the U.N. Basic Principles states, in relevant part, that [l]awyers like other citizens are entitled to freedom of expression, belief, association and assembly,” including, in particular, “the right to take part in public discussion of matters concerning the law, the administration of justice and the promotion and protection of human rights.”

[37] See U.N. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, Principle 1 (providing that “[a]ll persons are entitled to call upon the assistance of a lawyer of their choice”).

[38] See U.N. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, Principle 16 (directing governments to “ensure that lawyers . . . are able to perform all of their professional functions without intimidation, hindrance, harassment or improper influence”).

[39] See U.N. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, Principle 18 (providing that, in discharging their professional responsibilities, “[l]awyers shall not be identified with their clients or their clients’ causes”).

[40] See generally U.N. Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (“U.N. Declaration on Human Rights Defenders”), https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Defenders/Declaration/declaration.pdf.

[41] See Iran marks 40th anniversary of Islamic revolution (Al Jazeera, Feb. 11, 2019), https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/02/millions-mark-40th-anniversary-iranian-revolution-190211002413307.htmlIran begins marking 40th anniversary of Islamic Revolution (Associated Press, Feb. 11, 2019), https://www.apnews.com/faa326cbc9e94fe58a819625e678cc8f.

[42] See Large number of prisoners to be granted clemency on anniversary of Iran’s revolution (Iran Daily, Jan. 25, 2019) (explaining that Article 110 of the Iranian Constitution grants the Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei the right to pardon or reduce the sentences of convicts upon a recommendation from the head of the Judiciary of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei), http://www.iran-daily.com/News/237894.htmlIran decrees mass pardon in honor of revolution anniversary (Associated Press, Feb. 7, 2019), https://www.apnews.com/7a0f71a0932b4cdd9643af99311b80e0Large number of Iranian prisoners to be pardoned for revolution anniversary – Khamenei (Reuters, Feb. 7, 2019).

[43] See International Women’s Day (United Nations), http://www.un.org/en/events/womensday/; International Women’s Day, https://www.internationalwomensday.com/Theme.

Please follow and like us:
Facebook
Twitter
LinkedIn